Sunday, July 31, 2011

Sanitation: Cleaning and Disinfectants

Diseases and infections have always been a big problem for the poultry industry - especially in the hatchery. Fortunately, microbial contamination can be prevented and controlled through good management practices and modern products for health care.
Microorganisms are everywhere! Some of them are relatively harmless, others are highly pathogenic. Some of them are deadly threat to the species, while remaining harmless to other species. Some organisms are easily destroyed, while others are very difficult to remove. The moral is: Treat all microorganisms as a serious threat to living young.
The understanding of the terms used to describe microbial control is important in selecting appropriate measures to eliminate pathogenic organisms. Three terms are often used, but often poor sterilization, disinfection and
  • Sterilization - The destruction of all infective and reproductive forms of all microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.).
  • Disinfection - The destruction of all vegetative forms of microorganisms. Spores are not destroyed.
  • Sanitation - The reduction of pathogenic organism numbers to a level at which they do not pose a disease threat to their host.
Most hatchery personnel have the impression that they are approaching a sterile condition because they use disinfectants when "disinfecting" the facilities. In fact, they may only achieve a sanitized condition at the very best. The most important consideration to remember when striving for a sanitized hatchery is that cleanliness is essential.
Proper cleaning of facilities removes the vast majority of all organisms and must be used before application of disinfectants. This applies to all areas within the hatchery including floors, walls, setters, hatchers, trays, chick processing equipment, air and personnel. The success of a hatchery sanitation program is limited only by its weakest link.
It is extremely important to remove as much organic matter as practicable from surfaces to be disinfected. All debris including down, egg shells, droppings, tissue residues, etc. must be removed from the hatchery. This is followed by thorough cleaning using warm water and appropriate cleaning aides. Care is focused on selecting the proper detergent and thus producing the cleanest hatchery environment possible. Special attention is placed on compensating for variations in hardness, salinity and pH of the cleaning water. A thorough rinsing with abundant quantities of clean sanitized water completes the cleaning process and removes most lingering residues of detergents, organic matter or microbial organisms that can interfere with the effectiveness of a disinfectant.
Only after the facilities have been thoroughly cleaned are the surfaces treated with an appropriate disinfectant solution. Not all disinfectants are suited for every situation. When selecting the right disinfectant, carefully consider:
  1. The type of surface being treated.
  2. The cleanliness of the surface.
  3. The type of organisms being treated.
  4. The durability of the equipment/surface material.
  5. Time limitations on treatment duration.
  6. Residual activity requirements.
If the surface is free of organic matter and residual activity is not required, quaternary ammonium compounds and possibly halogen compounds can be used effectively. However, if surfaces are difficult to clean, residual activity is required or the contaminating organisms are difficult to destroy, then multiple phenolics or coal tar distillates may be needed.
Careful attention must assure that the disinfectant, if used as directed, meets requirements of the user. Be reasonable and don't expect the product to produce unattainable performance. Instead, select a different product or modify disease control practices.
In general, disinfectants can be divided into seven major categories. A more detailed summary of the basic attributes of each category of disinfectants is available later in this discussion as "General Characteristics of Disinfectants". The various classes of disinfectants are:
  1. Alcohols
  2. Halogens
  3. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  4. Phenolics
  5. Coal Tar Distillates
  6. Aldehydes
  7. Oxidizing Agents
Although many disinfectants are available, those most suited for use in today's hatcheries include quaternary ammonium compounds, phenolics and aldehydes. However, each disinfectant is used only in appropriate locations for meeting the purposes for which it is designed.
Several considerations must be remembered when using any disinfectant to maximize its effectiveness. Some of these general considerations are:
Few disinfectants are effective instantaneously. Each requires a certain amount of time to bond with the microbe and exert a destructive influence. Allow adequate contact time (usually 30 minutes is sufficient) or select a different disinfectant.
When selecting disinfectants, consider their effectiveness on organisms that are of greatest concern. If a hatchery is experiencing problems with a certain viral disease, the disinfectant selected must be effective for destroying the specific organism causing the problem. Not all disinfectants are effective on all types or species of organisms.
In most situations it is advisable to clean and disinfect in two different operations that are separated with thorough water rinsing. Many cleaning/disinfecting producers promote their product based on ease and economy of use because they clean and disinfect in one operation. If these products are used, make sure that they satisfy all efficacy requirements demanded of other disinfectants.
The efficacy of disinfectant solutions is usually enhanced when applied in warm solutions rather that cold solutions. "Hot" solutions, however, may reduce disinfectant efficacy or promote a "cooked-on" condition for unremoved protein-rich residues.
When possible, allow all surfaces to dry thoroughly prior to reuse. Dryness helps prevent the reproduction, spread and transport of disease organisms. Although a surface is clean, it is more easily recontaminated with organisms if water remains on the surface.
A listing of important characteristics for the more commonly used disinfectants used by the poultry industry is shown in General Characteristics of Disinfectants.
It is important when selecting the best disinfectant to consider its effect upon the developing embryo and the hatchery environment. Embryos are in a very sensitive stage of development when the eggs enter the hatchery. They can be severely affected if subjected to chemical vapors, even if a sterile environment is provided.
It must be remembered that an egg is not produced in a sterile environment. Before it is laid, the egg is subjected to a series of microbial attacks that can reduce the embryo's potential to develop into a healthy, robust chick. The vent of the hen is probably the most contaminated area that an egg passes through. Poorly maintained nests can also distribute organisms to noninfected eggs. Fortunately, nature has provided several protective barriers for the embryo. Hatchery personnel must not conduct any procedure that interferes with the egg's natural defense. Producers must make every effort to collect and store eggs so that natural protections are not compromised.
Keeping egg shell surfaces dry is very important to prevent excessive microbial contamination and shell penetration. Without benefit of aqueous water the potentially dangerous microorganisms have little opportunity to invade the egg shell and infect the embryo. Sweating of eggs as they are moved from warm to cool environments must be prevented if sanitation programs are to be successful.
Embryos have the same requirements prior to pipping that the chicks have following hatching. They have the need for heat, moisture, and a high-quality source of air. They can be severely affected by harmful fumes originating from many chemicals often found in or near the hatchery. Although hatchability may not be affected, the quality of the chicks can be reduced. Whenever unusual odors from detrimental chemicals are detected in the hatchery, the product must be removed. This applies to all chemicals within the hatchery, including disinfectants. As an example, vapors produced by improper use of phenolic disinfectants can cause changes in egg proteins and impair hatchability and chick quality.
Improper selection or use of some disinfectants can damage or hinder the function of hatchery equipment. Many disinfectants are corrosive and damaging to equipment parts. Some disinfectants can clog and gum-up spray nozzles if added to the water used in humidifiers. It is possible that electronic control devices can also be severely damaged or destroyed after prolonged exposure to some disinfectants.
Select disinfectants wisely and always follow label directions for their safe use. Not only does management have the responsibility to maximize hatchability and chick quality, but also to provide a safe working environment for the hatchery personnel. Safety of the people working in the hatchery must never be sacrificed for cost or productive efficiency.
Assuming that a proper state of sanitation is achieved, it must be remembered that the status of disease-free surfaces can be compromised if facilities are not maintained properly. Hatchery personnel must be made aware that they can be a major source of reinfection by transporting of microorganisms on clothes, hands and attire. Since people are direct carriers of microbes, provisions must be made available at appropriate locations in the hatchery for the washing of hands and footwear. Laboratory coats and caps can significantly reduce the spread of microbial organisms. Restricting movement of hatchery personnel by assigning duties within specific areas can reduce the distribution of organisms throughout the hatchery.
The risk posed by disease causing organisms is a constant challenge to hatchery personnel. Always use control measures that have been proved effective rather than trusting visual cleanliness as an indicator of sanitation. A clean surface does not always indicate a disease-free state. Assuming so may be fatal to the chicks and the management program.

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Small Flock Management of Poultry

Construction and management of laying hens can be performed using one of the two methods, or cage layer production stage floor. Using both methods to keep hens in production throughout the year as the proper environmental and nutritional needs are met.
The stable should be away from other farm structures will be placed. The soil must ensure good drainage. Suitable mixers are necessary to provide the correct light intensity. Sufficient light is like water and feed in the trough levels may be seen after enough time for your eyes to adjust to the dim lighting. Fresh, clean water should be available at all times.
 The house should allow for plenty of ventilation and sunlight. Place 1 inch, poultry wire netting over all openings to separate the hens from other birds and animals, both wild and domestic. Removable curtains or doors are recommended so the openings can be opened or closed as the weather changes. Keep the house dry and comfortable by ventilating from all sides in the summer and closing most openings in winter.
The caged layer production method consists of placing the hens in wire cages with feed and water being provided to each cage. The birds are housed at a capacity of two to three hens in each cage, which measures approximately 12"x16"18". The cages are arranged in rows which are placed on leg supports or suspended from the ceiling so the floors of the cages are about 2 to 3 feet above the ground. Water is supplied by individual cup waterers or a long trough outside the cages that extends the length of the row of cages. The feed trough is also located outside the cages and runs parallel to the water trough on the opposite side of each cage. The cages are designed so the eggs will roll out of the cage to a holding area by means of a slanted wire floor. This method of housing is used primarily with egg-type layers kept for infertile egg production.
The floor production method is designed for either egg-type or broiler-type birds kept for fertile or infertile eggs. In commercial flocks this method is used when fertile eggs for hatching are needed. The birds are maintained in the house on a litter covered floor, giving the term floor production.
One nest 14 inches wide, 12 inches high, and 16 inches deep is needed for each four hens. A mash hopper 5 feet long and open on both sides is adequate for 25 hens. Three 3-gallon pans provide adequate watering space for 30 hens. Clean, scrub and disinfect the house and equipment thoroughly before placing the pullets in the laying house after it has dried. Put 3 inches of litter material in the nests and 4 to 6 inches of litter on the floor.
Regardless of which production method is used, the 22-week old pullets should be given an increasing daily light schedule after being placed in the laying house. The length of daily light should be increased 15 minutes each week after the birds enter the laying house. The increased light will stimulate egg production and help maintain production throughout the year. The day length increases should continue until the birds are receiving 16-18 hours of light each day. The day length should remain the same for the rest of the laying period. After the birds begin to produce eggs, the total duration of light, including both natural and artificial, should not be reduced.
The birds should be fed a nutritionally balanced commercial laying mash containing 16 percent protein. Use a special breeder ration if the eggs are being saved for hatching purposes. These breeder diets contain higher levels of vitamins that help produce higher hatchability and healthier chicks. Poultry older than 16-18 weeks do not require a ration containing a coccidiostat unless a coccidiosis outbreak occurs. If a commercially produced layer ration is provided, additional oyster shell, grit or grain is not needed.
Broodiness is often a problem in floor production housing. It is characterized by a hen wanting to build a permanent nest and begin "setting." The problem can be solved by removing the hen from the flock and placing her in a wire-floored cage for 3 to 4 days. Ample feed and water should be supplied to the affected hen. The hen can then usually be returned to the flock with no further problem. The treatment can be repeated if the hen continues to be broody.

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Defined Gorontalo endemic status

Veterinarians in Plantation and Animal Husbandry Department (Disbunnak) Gorontalo province, DVM Fenny Rumporok, Tuesday (04/05/2011) revealed, endemic status determined after cases of bird flu found in two other districts, namely Boalemo and Bone Bolango.

"Thus, now there are three districts and one municipality that tested positive for H5N1, namely Kabupaten Gorontalo, Boalemo, Bone Bolango and Gorontalo City," he said.

Two other districts, Pohuwato which borders North Central Sulawesi and Gorontalo, which borders North Sulawesi, has yet to give a report related to the poultry disease.

He added that so far also have been no reports of their respective communities and local government, the existence of transmission to humans.

It had culled thousands of chickens infected cattle H5N1 virus, in regions affected.

Goronyalo provincial government will also soon make the communication, information and education-related diseases that can infect the human body.

"Socialization will be done by installing billboards in strategic places, and distribute leaflets in every area, we also utilize the mass media," he said.

Closed Poultry Industry in Indonesia
National poultry industry requested more open about bird flu cases. Until now, cases of bird flu were reported more than farm people. In fact, the openness of the industry is needed to speed up the handling.
According Mangku Sitepu, a former member of the Expert Panel and the National Avian Influenza Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (Komnas FBPI) as well as physicians and veterinarians, to date there has been no disclosure of the poultry industry.
Back when the first cases of bird flu, there are serious handling. All the vaccinated workers. However, now no longer visible. "Poultry industry has never reported a case of dead or sick chickens. During this reporting only the people. We've heard from their baseball, "he said.
Mangku states, openness is needed. "We have to know how many chickens that died how much pain and how that has been vaccinated. OIE also recommends a monthly report, "he said.
Responding, the Chairman of the Joint Food Companies Livestock (GPMT) Sudirman said, when the outbreak at the farm, had itself carried out the destruction. Because, if allowed, would be detrimental. If that happens to people's farms, very sorry.
"The report was supposed to do. Moreover, transmission of bird flu virus is no longer a disgrace, in Indonesia is endemic. In other countries, like Japan, South Korea, and European countries and Latin America, Bangladesh, are also taxable, "he said.
When there PBPI Commission, there is good coordination. That should be followed. Moreover, the threat still exists, despite the public's understanding is getting better. "Therefore, we should once again revitalization of existing agencies. There used to be a grant, both from FAO, the United States through USAID, and NGOs from abroad. Now the fund is reduced, "he said.
Poultry industry, said Sudirman, was pretty open because it proved the government there are people who go into the nursery industry to conduct an audit since 2003/2004.
Related cases in Gorontalo, Fenny Rumporok, one veterinarian at Plantation and Animal Husbandry Department Gorontalo province, said that until now has not been available bird flu vaccine in Gorontalo.
From Bandung reported, poultry in Bandung Regency, West Java, after the bird flu be vaccinated, immunity show number reached 70 percent. The rest will be re-vaccinated to prevent the recurrence of bird flu cases spread in that place.
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Avian influenza

Avian Influenza

(also known as bird flu, avian influenza) is a form of influenza virus that is hosted by birds causes, but may infect several species of mammals. It was first recognized in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known that the whole world. A strain of the H5N1 type of avian flu virus, which was created in 1997, when the most likely source identified for a future pandemic.
Strains of avian influenza can infect virus different types of animals, including birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans. However, spreading wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers, they are prone to domestic shares. Bird flu virus spreads in the air and in manure and there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat.

How to recognize bird flu
What should you should

       * Ruffled feathers
       * Soft-shelled eggs
       * Depression and droopiness
       Sudden drop in egg production
       * Loss of appetite
       * Cyanosis (purplish-blue coloring) of wattles and comb
       * Edema and swelling of the head, eyelids, comb, wattles and hocks
       * Green Diarrhea
       * Bloody nasal
       * Co-ordination problems, including loss of ability to walk or stand, and
       * Pin-point hemorrhages (most easily seen on the feet and calves)
       * Shortness of breath
       * Increased death losses in a herd
       * Sudden Death
       * nasal discharge
Poultry Vaccination as a strategy for controlling AI in commercial birds

Outbreaks of avian influenza in the poultry industry cause devastating economic losses and is generally controlled through extensive culling of infected birds. Alternative strategies also use vaccination as a supplementary control measure during avian influenza outbreaks.
Advantages of Vaccination
  • Vaccination reduces susceptibility to infection.
  • A higher dose of virus is necessary to infect the vaccinated birds.
  • Vaccinated birds shed less virus.
    - Decreased contamination of the environment.
    - Decreased risk of human infection
  • Used strategically vaccination compliments a stamping out strategy by slowing/stopping the spread of the virus
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