Sunday, August 28, 2011

Leg Problem Controlling


Leg problems are caused by multiple factors (multifactorial), sometimes also referred to as diseases associated with management (management related diseases) is one one that needs attention, because it causes an increase in depletion (culling) the amount quite significant.

Leg incident handling and prevention of problems must be done in parallel between the improvement management and medication regimen. Management improvements will minimize the factors Leg predisposition that causes problems. Medication regimen will minimize contamination levels in cages and suppress the infection in the body of chicken. If all run simultaneously, it is expected to make the performance better, because all potential chicken will appear. Factors genetic flaws that cause frequent occurrence of Leg problems can be minimized by the conditions inside the enclosure sufficient comfort.
Control / Control Leg problems done in the following way:

1. With management control:
     To prevent the occurrence of leg problems, it is necessary to note a few important things could affect  the infection in the field, is as follows:
     - The sterility of the vaccine at the time of application:
        i. Control at the time of sterile tools vaccine, whether it is appropriate IK.

        ii. Controls when installing a hose into the infusion bottle and at the turn of the bottle, whether done in sterile and carried on where clean.

        iii. Controls whether the replacement was appropriate needle and the needle did not work instructions
            dirty, not hand-held.

        iv. Controls whether the needle used to puncture the bottle (so that the air  into the bottle) the existing 

        v. Controls whether alcohol was carrying equipment for hand sanitation and equipment.

        vi.Controls whether the syringes and needles are used to dissolve the vaccine is always
            in a closed condition and clean.

    - Inspection of the condition and the equipment inside the enclosure:

       i. Control inside the cage, if there sharp objects (nails, wire)
          used on walls, floors, slat, ladder, nest boxes, automatic feeder, etc.. Has it been fitted top grill on grill 
          automatic feeder.

      ii. Humidity control litter is too wet, causing manure or litter attached to the leg.

      iii. Is the level too high ammoniak caused by impurities wet suit that is too big a place to drink or drinking 
          place the leak. Ammoniak high can cause burning ammoniak which causes the foot to be broken.

      iv. Density control in a cage or pen, if the density is too high, whether the feed and drinking places is   
           enough. Density height is a factor predisposing to Leg problems.

          Coccidiosis Control status:
i. At control conditions inside the enclosure using adequate lighting
   (Battery), so they can see more detail.

ii. Is the condition of healthy birds, feathers do not stand up and dull, good mobility.

iii. Is not there a dilute impurities such as orange-colored pasta, red or black.

iv. If there are symptoms of cocci, it is necessary to further observation by doing a post mortem examination   to determine whether infestations occur cocci.

v. If there is clinical and subclinical cocci, then immediately do medication. Conditions of weak chicken and injury to the bowel makes the factor predisposes to leg problems.

2. Prevention / control with antibiotics through feed (medicated feed): Antibiotics are meant to reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria in the body chickens, so there is no exposure to excessive bacteria in the cage. Medicated feed given to the farm at present there are clinical symptoms of leg problems or on farm based on the history of frequent cases of leg problems in the previous period. Medicated feed to control Leg problems were coded as "Med A" by using antibiotic Amoxycillin with a dose of 100 ppm. Amoxycillin can serve as a control Staphylococcus sp., Necrotic enteritis and Salmonella sp.

The way of feeding "medicated" as follows:
- Each package for the treatment of leg problems include: provision of Amoxycillin Powder
   for 5 days through drinking water at a dose of 40 mg / kg, followed by feeding "Med A" for 14 days.
- Control of leg problems using feed "medicated", given from 8 weeks, the next administration with an interval of 4 weeks from the last day administration and given up to the age of initial production (control Leg problems
given at the age of 8, 15 and 22 weeks).

- Leg Treatment problem: if there is a farm that already contained Leg problems,
then to be given treatment for leg problems as much as 2 packages, with interval of 4 weeks.
- If there is a farm that has leg problems and Mycoplasmosis in simultaneously then the control program is given control program Mycoplasma, because mycoplasma control program can also be used as a program
Leg control problems.

3. Monitor events Leg Problems:

Farm should be monitored early to determine the prevention measures in order
no delay in handling, so not to cause chicken
culling in large numbers. For it is necessary for monitoring the incidence Leg problems
as follows:

- Monitor the inspection:

i. Take control when chickens began eating in the morning. If there
   limping chicken, then immediately remove it from the cage.
ii. In the event of a fairly significant increase in the number, then immediately
   do shipping samples of serum and chicken to the Laboratory.

iii. Verify whether the occurrence of infections caused by viruses, MS or
    Staphylococcus sp. To ensure viral arthritis can be done with
    how post-mortem examination and histopathology. For MS examination can be done
    with serology test.
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Saturday, August 6, 2011

Bird Flu

All domesticated poultry species are susceptible to Avian Influenza (AI). Also called avian flu or bird flu called. In the outbreak in 2003 of the H7N2 type that appeared on a limited scale backyard poultry had become infected. Research showed that the risk of infection and spread of the virus in backyard poultry is much smaller than commercial poultry. (1)

Backyard poultry vaccination against bird flu

At the time of the outbreak in 2003 was a ban on vaccination. Due to the worldwide spread of the dangerous H5N1 virus to humans, this vaccine ban on the initiative of the Dutch government in 2006 eased. Hobby poultry should be vaccinated against bird flu since then. The Dutch government must get permission before applications''Brussels''. This permission is for a specified period issued.
The protocol for preventive vaccination was initially - two blood tests, export ban on backyard poultry vaccinated, vaccination at home - has changed since 2007. The blood test is not required before and after vaccination is not mandatory for all hobby keepers blood sample. This will happen randomly. Vaccinated animals may be transported to another Member State provided that State do not object. (2)

The Dutch government since 2006 makes a distinction between commercial poultry and backyard poultry in terms of screening / confinement. In a low risk of infection may backyard poultry, except waterfowl, roam freely. Vaccinated hobby poultry is also at high risk exempt from the screening requirement. (3) All types of vaccines against avian influenza H5 and H7 that since 2007 the European Union on the market, meet the quality standards and are safe and effective use (4).
ResearchSince the outbreaks of bird flu found on businesses regulated research (monitoring) site. Also, wild birds are tested for the presence of bird flu. Worldwide there is much scientific research. It is under further revealed that the H5N1 virus can survive long outside of birds. Varies depending on the circumstances the survival of two weeks to two months. The colder and drier air, the longer the virus remains alive.

It is also clear now why it is that ducks are carrying the virus, not ill. U.S. scientists have discovered a gene that causes bird flu infection with duck a problem through. Chickens do not have this gene.

Low Pathogenic and High Pathogenic

With bird flu a distinction between low pathogenic and highly pathogenic virus. The low pathogenic virus is not very ill, the highly pathogenic is very sickening. For the low pathogenic virus is a different approach than for the highly pathogenic virus. In an outbreak of low pathogenic virus is only removed the infected farm, an outbreak of highly pathogenic virus are also businesses in the area cleared. Vaccination of companies is possible, but for economic reasons still not fully accepted. Also, the existing vaccine is not fast enough to operate a poultry outbreak in a highly dense area quickly to control (see appendix Control of Highly pathogenic Influenza Avia)
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Newcastle Diseases

Newcastle disease and New Castle Disease (NCD) is caused by the virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Rubulavirus. Newcastle disease is endemic in many countries.The incubation period for Newcastle disease is four to six days. The symptoms are wheezing, coughing, hanging from the wings, turning the head, paralysis, decreased egg production, distorted egg, greenish, watery diarrhea, swelling around the eyes and the neck. Mortality depends on the type of poultry and the virus type.
Newcastle disease virus may be present in almost all birds, both domesticated and wild birds. Directly susceptible to the virus are chickens, turkeys, quails, pigeons, ostriches, parrots and canaries species. Other birds are less sensitive and exhibit milder symptoms. Less sensitive species can carry and excrete virus without showing symptoms.
The transmission of the virus takes place including the feces of infected animals. The man can play a role in the transmission. There is no treatment. (1)
SpreadDistribution of the New Castle Disease and Newcastle disease within a flock is through inhalation of virus or the absorption of water and / or food contaminated by manure or secretions of loft mates.Spread from an infected flock to a sensitive torque is available over the air, contaminated water droplets and particles through mechanical vectors. Clothing, footwear of visitors, crates, containers and egg trays are the most important.Other distribution vectors include other animals, including flies, litter and contaminated poultry products (meat and eggs).Spread of virus from a reservoir of wild birds may be in direct contact with infected wild birds and poultry business. Infection is possible if infected wild birds in the immediate vicinity of the barn and stop conditions for distribution via the winds are favorable. In this context also (post) pigeons a potential source of infection.
VaccinationFor Newcastle disease and Newcastle disease vaccination is a requirement for commercial farmers, hobby farmers with their animals to shows, and holders of pigeons participating in races. Several vaccines are freely available. This compulsory vaccination must be performed by a veterinarian.In addition, owners themselves voluntarily vaccinate their animals. The vaccination should be carefully conducted. The oogdruppelmethode is the best, then spray-inoculation, and finally the drinking water vaccination. Experienced bird keepers, the vaccination itself can perform well. Follow the instructions of the veterinarian well. Not every vet has the vaccine in stock but can order or at a poultry veterinarian involved. It is very useful vaccination after 14 days to repeat. The animals build a good resistance.
Under the control scenario are sick animals euthanized and non-diseased animals are kept indoors 60 days and checked for disease. After 30 and 60 days, these animals by the FDA sampled for NCD and then vaccinated. Is a location free from disease, it will be released after 60 days.
In pigeons is a variant of Newcastle disease found that in sudden death without obvious abnormalities lead. It is the pigeon paramyxovirus-1. This virus would in due course be transferred to chickens, where it could develop into a malignant variant. In couples who have a good protection against Newcastle disease virus, this little birds can do damage.
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The disease ILT (infectious laryngotracheitis) may occur in hobbykippen, pheasants and peacocks. Infection with this virus disease is characterized by increased mortality, respiratory sounds (gurgling and spluttering), conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, occasionally bloody mucus and the striking 'yawn', where the animals with open beaks and outstretched neck, inhaling and then at the expiration the head lowered. The chicken can thereby have very cramped.

Transfer and dissemination of ILTThe ILT virus is a herpesvirus. The virus can be particularly at low temperatures to survive very long outside of the chicken: one week in manure and dead animals in a few months. ILT virus spreads more slowly than other viruses, such as IBV, NCD and AI. For houses with cages may take several days before the barn is infected.Dissemination takes place through: direct contact and indirect contact (people, birds, vermin, transport, packaging and tools). Spread through the air seems possible, but is normally not a major factor. Wild birds are not seen as a virus reservoir, although pheasants are a risk factor.There is no vertical transmission in infected eggs because the embryo dies off. The incubation period is 5-15 days. After infection and vaccination can prevent latent virus carriers. Reactivation of the (vaccine) virus is possible, such as stress, production, and scaling an existing in a flock.

No treatment, or vaccinationAgainst ILT is no treatment. Emergency vaccination of the affected animals can not do. This vaccine gives complete protection after one day or 5. Vaccination can cause severe symptoms and even lead to new outbreaks. Because of the severe reaction to vaccination is recommended only if there are sick animals or their immediate neighbors complaints. Preventive vaccination is risky.

The practice, signals that a relationship exists between nutrition and ILT. That relationship is traced to a diet of lower quality, which decreases the resistance of the animals and they are susceptible to ILT. In well-fed animals were less severe symptoms than less well-nourished animals. Which would amount to ILT is also a symptom of an overall weakening of chickens.
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Gumboro Disease, also known as Infectious bursitis of Infectious Disease Scholarship (IBD) called, is caused by the Gumboro virus. The disease can be clinical or subclinical course and caused much damage in both cases.
SymptomsA couple has affected general illness with a watery, slimy stools white (by uraatbijmenging). In a torque-sensitive, the whole flock suddenly attacked and lead to death. Although the literature indicates that clinical (visible) infections are not common in animals less than three weeks, we see in practice, often at an earlier stage clinical infections. The earliest infection was determined at the age of 9 days.
CauseThe disease is caused by the Gumborovirus, also known as Infectious Disease Scholarship virus (IBD) called. Natural infection occurs by uptake of the virus through the beak / mouth (oral route). The virus was 5 hours after infection to demonstrate in cells of the small intestine and liver. A strong virus replication occurs in the bursa of Fabricius from 11 hours after infection. The main host for the IBD virus (IBDV) is the chicken, continue his regular natural infections in turkeys and ducks. For pheasants and ostriches, the IBD virus is isolated, quail may also be sensitive. The disease occurs worldwide.
IBD has two serotypes: serotype 1 and serotype is the most important causes disease in chickens, serotype 2 is found in chicken, turkey and duck, but is not pathogenic. Within the serotype 1, the so-called variant IBD viruses' for. These cause many problems in the USA. Within a serotype, a further subdivision into groups as possible. This is done based on differences in amino acid sequence. The groups with modern DNA techniques to map. The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 3 days.
Infection RouteVirus Spread within a flock is through direct and indirect contact. The manure is the main source of dust stain. Infected animals secreted up to two weeks after infection with the virus much manure. Transmission through the air (aero gene transmission) plays no role. There is no evidence of transmission through hatching (vertical transmission). Also, we do not know 'carriers'.The virus is highly resistant, thus IBD problem once infected premises may remain long. After removal of an IBD-infected flocks remains the loft for at least 122 days infectious, water, feed and manure samples from a contaminated pen after 52 days still infectious. IBD virus includes sensitive to chloramine disinfection with 2% (Halamid), formalin and glutaraldehyde.
Between companiesSpread to other firms takes place through people, animals or contaminated materials. Because of the resistant nature of the indirect transfer easily find Gumborovirus place. Wild birds, rodents and polystyrene beetles can transmit the virus to other couples and / or companies. The virus can survive for long in manure. Contaminated manure near businesses is a clear risk factor.
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Sunday, July 31, 2011

Sanitation: Cleaning and Disinfectants

Diseases and infections have always been a big problem for the poultry industry - especially in the hatchery. Fortunately, microbial contamination can be prevented and controlled through good management practices and modern products for health care.
Microorganisms are everywhere! Some of them are relatively harmless, others are highly pathogenic. Some of them are deadly threat to the species, while remaining harmless to other species. Some organisms are easily destroyed, while others are very difficult to remove. The moral is: Treat all microorganisms as a serious threat to living young.
The understanding of the terms used to describe microbial control is important in selecting appropriate measures to eliminate pathogenic organisms. Three terms are often used, but often poor sterilization, disinfection and
  • Sterilization - The destruction of all infective and reproductive forms of all microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.).
  • Disinfection - The destruction of all vegetative forms of microorganisms. Spores are not destroyed.
  • Sanitation - The reduction of pathogenic organism numbers to a level at which they do not pose a disease threat to their host.
Most hatchery personnel have the impression that they are approaching a sterile condition because they use disinfectants when "disinfecting" the facilities. In fact, they may only achieve a sanitized condition at the very best. The most important consideration to remember when striving for a sanitized hatchery is that cleanliness is essential.
Proper cleaning of facilities removes the vast majority of all organisms and must be used before application of disinfectants. This applies to all areas within the hatchery including floors, walls, setters, hatchers, trays, chick processing equipment, air and personnel. The success of a hatchery sanitation program is limited only by its weakest link.
It is extremely important to remove as much organic matter as practicable from surfaces to be disinfected. All debris including down, egg shells, droppings, tissue residues, etc. must be removed from the hatchery. This is followed by thorough cleaning using warm water and appropriate cleaning aides. Care is focused on selecting the proper detergent and thus producing the cleanest hatchery environment possible. Special attention is placed on compensating for variations in hardness, salinity and pH of the cleaning water. A thorough rinsing with abundant quantities of clean sanitized water completes the cleaning process and removes most lingering residues of detergents, organic matter or microbial organisms that can interfere with the effectiveness of a disinfectant.
Only after the facilities have been thoroughly cleaned are the surfaces treated with an appropriate disinfectant solution. Not all disinfectants are suited for every situation. When selecting the right disinfectant, carefully consider:
  1. The type of surface being treated.
  2. The cleanliness of the surface.
  3. The type of organisms being treated.
  4. The durability of the equipment/surface material.
  5. Time limitations on treatment duration.
  6. Residual activity requirements.
If the surface is free of organic matter and residual activity is not required, quaternary ammonium compounds and possibly halogen compounds can be used effectively. However, if surfaces are difficult to clean, residual activity is required or the contaminating organisms are difficult to destroy, then multiple phenolics or coal tar distillates may be needed.
Careful attention must assure that the disinfectant, if used as directed, meets requirements of the user. Be reasonable and don't expect the product to produce unattainable performance. Instead, select a different product or modify disease control practices.
In general, disinfectants can be divided into seven major categories. A more detailed summary of the basic attributes of each category of disinfectants is available later in this discussion as "General Characteristics of Disinfectants". The various classes of disinfectants are:
  1. Alcohols
  2. Halogens
  3. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  4. Phenolics
  5. Coal Tar Distillates
  6. Aldehydes
  7. Oxidizing Agents
Although many disinfectants are available, those most suited for use in today's hatcheries include quaternary ammonium compounds, phenolics and aldehydes. However, each disinfectant is used only in appropriate locations for meeting the purposes for which it is designed.
Several considerations must be remembered when using any disinfectant to maximize its effectiveness. Some of these general considerations are:
Few disinfectants are effective instantaneously. Each requires a certain amount of time to bond with the microbe and exert a destructive influence. Allow adequate contact time (usually 30 minutes is sufficient) or select a different disinfectant.
When selecting disinfectants, consider their effectiveness on organisms that are of greatest concern. If a hatchery is experiencing problems with a certain viral disease, the disinfectant selected must be effective for destroying the specific organism causing the problem. Not all disinfectants are effective on all types or species of organisms.
In most situations it is advisable to clean and disinfect in two different operations that are separated with thorough water rinsing. Many cleaning/disinfecting producers promote their product based on ease and economy of use because they clean and disinfect in one operation. If these products are used, make sure that they satisfy all efficacy requirements demanded of other disinfectants.
The efficacy of disinfectant solutions is usually enhanced when applied in warm solutions rather that cold solutions. "Hot" solutions, however, may reduce disinfectant efficacy or promote a "cooked-on" condition for unremoved protein-rich residues.
When possible, allow all surfaces to dry thoroughly prior to reuse. Dryness helps prevent the reproduction, spread and transport of disease organisms. Although a surface is clean, it is more easily recontaminated with organisms if water remains on the surface.
A listing of important characteristics for the more commonly used disinfectants used by the poultry industry is shown in General Characteristics of Disinfectants.
It is important when selecting the best disinfectant to consider its effect upon the developing embryo and the hatchery environment. Embryos are in a very sensitive stage of development when the eggs enter the hatchery. They can be severely affected if subjected to chemical vapors, even if a sterile environment is provided.
It must be remembered that an egg is not produced in a sterile environment. Before it is laid, the egg is subjected to a series of microbial attacks that can reduce the embryo's potential to develop into a healthy, robust chick. The vent of the hen is probably the most contaminated area that an egg passes through. Poorly maintained nests can also distribute organisms to noninfected eggs. Fortunately, nature has provided several protective barriers for the embryo. Hatchery personnel must not conduct any procedure that interferes with the egg's natural defense. Producers must make every effort to collect and store eggs so that natural protections are not compromised.
Keeping egg shell surfaces dry is very important to prevent excessive microbial contamination and shell penetration. Without benefit of aqueous water the potentially dangerous microorganisms have little opportunity to invade the egg shell and infect the embryo. Sweating of eggs as they are moved from warm to cool environments must be prevented if sanitation programs are to be successful.
Embryos have the same requirements prior to pipping that the chicks have following hatching. They have the need for heat, moisture, and a high-quality source of air. They can be severely affected by harmful fumes originating from many chemicals often found in or near the hatchery. Although hatchability may not be affected, the quality of the chicks can be reduced. Whenever unusual odors from detrimental chemicals are detected in the hatchery, the product must be removed. This applies to all chemicals within the hatchery, including disinfectants. As an example, vapors produced by improper use of phenolic disinfectants can cause changes in egg proteins and impair hatchability and chick quality.
Improper selection or use of some disinfectants can damage or hinder the function of hatchery equipment. Many disinfectants are corrosive and damaging to equipment parts. Some disinfectants can clog and gum-up spray nozzles if added to the water used in humidifiers. It is possible that electronic control devices can also be severely damaged or destroyed after prolonged exposure to some disinfectants.
Select disinfectants wisely and always follow label directions for their safe use. Not only does management have the responsibility to maximize hatchability and chick quality, but also to provide a safe working environment for the hatchery personnel. Safety of the people working in the hatchery must never be sacrificed for cost or productive efficiency.
Assuming that a proper state of sanitation is achieved, it must be remembered that the status of disease-free surfaces can be compromised if facilities are not maintained properly. Hatchery personnel must be made aware that they can be a major source of reinfection by transporting of microorganisms on clothes, hands and attire. Since people are direct carriers of microbes, provisions must be made available at appropriate locations in the hatchery for the washing of hands and footwear. Laboratory coats and caps can significantly reduce the spread of microbial organisms. Restricting movement of hatchery personnel by assigning duties within specific areas can reduce the distribution of organisms throughout the hatchery.
The risk posed by disease causing organisms is a constant challenge to hatchery personnel. Always use control measures that have been proved effective rather than trusting visual cleanliness as an indicator of sanitation. A clean surface does not always indicate a disease-free state. Assuming so may be fatal to the chicks and the management program.

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Small Flock Management of Poultry

Construction and management of laying hens can be performed using one of the two methods, or cage layer production stage floor. Using both methods to keep hens in production throughout the year as the proper environmental and nutritional needs are met.
The stable should be away from other farm structures will be placed. The soil must ensure good drainage. Suitable mixers are necessary to provide the correct light intensity. Sufficient light is like water and feed in the trough levels may be seen after enough time for your eyes to adjust to the dim lighting. Fresh, clean water should be available at all times.
 The house should allow for plenty of ventilation and sunlight. Place 1 inch, poultry wire netting over all openings to separate the hens from other birds and animals, both wild and domestic. Removable curtains or doors are recommended so the openings can be opened or closed as the weather changes. Keep the house dry and comfortable by ventilating from all sides in the summer and closing most openings in winter.
The caged layer production method consists of placing the hens in wire cages with feed and water being provided to each cage. The birds are housed at a capacity of two to three hens in each cage, which measures approximately 12"x16"18". The cages are arranged in rows which are placed on leg supports or suspended from the ceiling so the floors of the cages are about 2 to 3 feet above the ground. Water is supplied by individual cup waterers or a long trough outside the cages that extends the length of the row of cages. The feed trough is also located outside the cages and runs parallel to the water trough on the opposite side of each cage. The cages are designed so the eggs will roll out of the cage to a holding area by means of a slanted wire floor. This method of housing is used primarily with egg-type layers kept for infertile egg production.
The floor production method is designed for either egg-type or broiler-type birds kept for fertile or infertile eggs. In commercial flocks this method is used when fertile eggs for hatching are needed. The birds are maintained in the house on a litter covered floor, giving the term floor production.
One nest 14 inches wide, 12 inches high, and 16 inches deep is needed for each four hens. A mash hopper 5 feet long and open on both sides is adequate for 25 hens. Three 3-gallon pans provide adequate watering space for 30 hens. Clean, scrub and disinfect the house and equipment thoroughly before placing the pullets in the laying house after it has dried. Put 3 inches of litter material in the nests and 4 to 6 inches of litter on the floor.
Regardless of which production method is used, the 22-week old pullets should be given an increasing daily light schedule after being placed in the laying house. The length of daily light should be increased 15 minutes each week after the birds enter the laying house. The increased light will stimulate egg production and help maintain production throughout the year. The day length increases should continue until the birds are receiving 16-18 hours of light each day. The day length should remain the same for the rest of the laying period. After the birds begin to produce eggs, the total duration of light, including both natural and artificial, should not be reduced.
The birds should be fed a nutritionally balanced commercial laying mash containing 16 percent protein. Use a special breeder ration if the eggs are being saved for hatching purposes. These breeder diets contain higher levels of vitamins that help produce higher hatchability and healthier chicks. Poultry older than 16-18 weeks do not require a ration containing a coccidiostat unless a coccidiosis outbreak occurs. If a commercially produced layer ration is provided, additional oyster shell, grit or grain is not needed.
Broodiness is often a problem in floor production housing. It is characterized by a hen wanting to build a permanent nest and begin "setting." The problem can be solved by removing the hen from the flock and placing her in a wire-floored cage for 3 to 4 days. Ample feed and water should be supplied to the affected hen. The hen can then usually be returned to the flock with no further problem. The treatment can be repeated if the hen continues to be broody.

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Defined Gorontalo endemic status

Veterinarians in Plantation and Animal Husbandry Department (Disbunnak) Gorontalo province, DVM Fenny Rumporok, Tuesday (04/05/2011) revealed, endemic status determined after cases of bird flu found in two other districts, namely Boalemo and Bone Bolango.

"Thus, now there are three districts and one municipality that tested positive for H5N1, namely Kabupaten Gorontalo, Boalemo, Bone Bolango and Gorontalo City," he said.

Two other districts, Pohuwato which borders North Central Sulawesi and Gorontalo, which borders North Sulawesi, has yet to give a report related to the poultry disease.

He added that so far also have been no reports of their respective communities and local government, the existence of transmission to humans.

It had culled thousands of chickens infected cattle H5N1 virus, in regions affected.

Goronyalo provincial government will also soon make the communication, information and education-related diseases that can infect the human body.

"Socialization will be done by installing billboards in strategic places, and distribute leaflets in every area, we also utilize the mass media," he said.

Closed Poultry Industry in Indonesia
National poultry industry requested more open about bird flu cases. Until now, cases of bird flu were reported more than farm people. In fact, the openness of the industry is needed to speed up the handling.
According Mangku Sitepu, a former member of the Expert Panel and the National Avian Influenza Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (Komnas FBPI) as well as physicians and veterinarians, to date there has been no disclosure of the poultry industry.
Back when the first cases of bird flu, there are serious handling. All the vaccinated workers. However, now no longer visible. "Poultry industry has never reported a case of dead or sick chickens. During this reporting only the people. We've heard from their baseball, "he said.
Mangku states, openness is needed. "We have to know how many chickens that died how much pain and how that has been vaccinated. OIE also recommends a monthly report, "he said.
Responding, the Chairman of the Joint Food Companies Livestock (GPMT) Sudirman said, when the outbreak at the farm, had itself carried out the destruction. Because, if allowed, would be detrimental. If that happens to people's farms, very sorry.
"The report was supposed to do. Moreover, transmission of bird flu virus is no longer a disgrace, in Indonesia is endemic. In other countries, like Japan, South Korea, and European countries and Latin America, Bangladesh, are also taxable, "he said.
When there PBPI Commission, there is good coordination. That should be followed. Moreover, the threat still exists, despite the public's understanding is getting better. "Therefore, we should once again revitalization of existing agencies. There used to be a grant, both from FAO, the United States through USAID, and NGOs from abroad. Now the fund is reduced, "he said.
Poultry industry, said Sudirman, was pretty open because it proved the government there are people who go into the nursery industry to conduct an audit since 2003/2004.
Related cases in Gorontalo, Fenny Rumporok, one veterinarian at Plantation and Animal Husbandry Department Gorontalo province, said that until now has not been available bird flu vaccine in Gorontalo.
From Bandung reported, poultry in Bandung Regency, West Java, after the bird flu be vaccinated, immunity show number reached 70 percent. The rest will be re-vaccinated to prevent the recurrence of bird flu cases spread in that place.
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Avian influenza

Avian Influenza

(also known as bird flu, avian influenza) is a form of influenza virus that is hosted by birds causes, but may infect several species of mammals. It was first recognized in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known that the whole world. A strain of the H5N1 type of avian flu virus, which was created in 1997, when the most likely source identified for a future pandemic.
Strains of avian influenza can infect virus different types of animals, including birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans. However, spreading wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers, they are prone to domestic shares. Bird flu virus spreads in the air and in manure and there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat.

How to recognize bird flu
What should you should

       * Ruffled feathers
       * Soft-shelled eggs
       * Depression and droopiness
       Sudden drop in egg production
       * Loss of appetite
       * Cyanosis (purplish-blue coloring) of wattles and comb
       * Edema and swelling of the head, eyelids, comb, wattles and hocks
       * Green Diarrhea
       * Bloody nasal
       * Co-ordination problems, including loss of ability to walk or stand, and
       * Pin-point hemorrhages (most easily seen on the feet and calves)
       * Shortness of breath
       * Increased death losses in a herd
       * Sudden Death
       * nasal discharge
Poultry Vaccination as a strategy for controlling AI in commercial birds

Outbreaks of avian influenza in the poultry industry cause devastating economic losses and is generally controlled through extensive culling of infected birds. Alternative strategies also use vaccination as a supplementary control measure during avian influenza outbreaks.
Advantages of Vaccination
  • Vaccination reduces susceptibility to infection.
  • A higher dose of virus is necessary to infect the vaccinated birds.
  • Vaccinated birds shed less virus.
    - Decreased contamination of the environment.
    - Decreased risk of human infection
  • Used strategically vaccination compliments a stamping out strategy by slowing/stopping the spread of the virus
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