Sunday, August 28, 2011

Leg Problem Controlling


Leg problems are caused by multiple factors (multifactorial), sometimes also referred to as diseases associated with management (management related diseases) is one one that needs attention, because it causes an increase in depletion (culling) the amount quite significant.

Leg incident handling and prevention of problems must be done in parallel between the improvement management and medication regimen. Management improvements will minimize the factors Leg predisposition that causes problems. Medication regimen will minimize contamination levels in cages and suppress the infection in the body of chicken. If all run simultaneously, it is expected to make the performance better, because all potential chicken will appear. Factors genetic flaws that cause frequent occurrence of Leg problems can be minimized by the conditions inside the enclosure sufficient comfort.
Control / Control Leg problems done in the following way:

1. With management control:
     To prevent the occurrence of leg problems, it is necessary to note a few important things could affect  the infection in the field, is as follows:
     - The sterility of the vaccine at the time of application:
        i. Control at the time of sterile tools vaccine, whether it is appropriate IK.

        ii. Controls when installing a hose into the infusion bottle and at the turn of the bottle, whether done in sterile and carried on where clean.

        iii. Controls whether the replacement was appropriate needle and the needle did not work instructions
            dirty, not hand-held.

        iv. Controls whether the needle used to puncture the bottle (so that the air  into the bottle) the existing 

        v. Controls whether alcohol was carrying equipment for hand sanitation and equipment.

        vi.Controls whether the syringes and needles are used to dissolve the vaccine is always
            in a closed condition and clean.

    - Inspection of the condition and the equipment inside the enclosure:

       i. Control inside the cage, if there sharp objects (nails, wire)
          used on walls, floors, slat, ladder, nest boxes, automatic feeder, etc.. Has it been fitted top grill on grill 
          automatic feeder.

      ii. Humidity control litter is too wet, causing manure or litter attached to the leg.

      iii. Is the level too high ammoniak caused by impurities wet suit that is too big a place to drink or drinking 
          place the leak. Ammoniak high can cause burning ammoniak which causes the foot to be broken.

      iv. Density control in a cage or pen, if the density is too high, whether the feed and drinking places is   
           enough. Density height is a factor predisposing to Leg problems.

          Coccidiosis Control status:
i. At control conditions inside the enclosure using adequate lighting
   (Battery), so they can see more detail.

ii. Is the condition of healthy birds, feathers do not stand up and dull, good mobility.

iii. Is not there a dilute impurities such as orange-colored pasta, red or black.

iv. If there are symptoms of cocci, it is necessary to further observation by doing a post mortem examination   to determine whether infestations occur cocci.

v. If there is clinical and subclinical cocci, then immediately do medication. Conditions of weak chicken and injury to the bowel makes the factor predisposes to leg problems.

2. Prevention / control with antibiotics through feed (medicated feed): Antibiotics are meant to reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria in the body chickens, so there is no exposure to excessive bacteria in the cage. Medicated feed given to the farm at present there are clinical symptoms of leg problems or on farm based on the history of frequent cases of leg problems in the previous period. Medicated feed to control Leg problems were coded as "Med A" by using antibiotic Amoxycillin with a dose of 100 ppm. Amoxycillin can serve as a control Staphylococcus sp., Necrotic enteritis and Salmonella sp.

The way of feeding "medicated" as follows:
- Each package for the treatment of leg problems include: provision of Amoxycillin Powder
   for 5 days through drinking water at a dose of 40 mg / kg, followed by feeding "Med A" for 14 days.
- Control of leg problems using feed "medicated", given from 8 weeks, the next administration with an interval of 4 weeks from the last day administration and given up to the age of initial production (control Leg problems
given at the age of 8, 15 and 22 weeks).

- Leg Treatment problem: if there is a farm that already contained Leg problems,
then to be given treatment for leg problems as much as 2 packages, with interval of 4 weeks.
- If there is a farm that has leg problems and Mycoplasmosis in simultaneously then the control program is given control program Mycoplasma, because mycoplasma control program can also be used as a program
Leg control problems.

3. Monitor events Leg Problems:

Farm should be monitored early to determine the prevention measures in order
no delay in handling, so not to cause chicken
culling in large numbers. For it is necessary for monitoring the incidence Leg problems
as follows:

- Monitor the inspection:

i. Take control when chickens began eating in the morning. If there
   limping chicken, then immediately remove it from the cage.
ii. In the event of a fairly significant increase in the number, then immediately
   do shipping samples of serum and chicken to the Laboratory.

iii. Verify whether the occurrence of infections caused by viruses, MS or
    Staphylococcus sp. To ensure viral arthritis can be done with
    how post-mortem examination and histopathology. For MS examination can be done
    with serology test.
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Saturday, August 6, 2011

Bird Flu

All domesticated poultry species are susceptible to Avian Influenza (AI). Also called avian flu or bird flu called. In the outbreak in 2003 of the H7N2 type that appeared on a limited scale backyard poultry had become infected. Research showed that the risk of infection and spread of the virus in backyard poultry is much smaller than commercial poultry. (1)

Backyard poultry vaccination against bird flu

At the time of the outbreak in 2003 was a ban on vaccination. Due to the worldwide spread of the dangerous H5N1 virus to humans, this vaccine ban on the initiative of the Dutch government in 2006 eased. Hobby poultry should be vaccinated against bird flu since then. The Dutch government must get permission before applications''Brussels''. This permission is for a specified period issued.
The protocol for preventive vaccination was initially - two blood tests, export ban on backyard poultry vaccinated, vaccination at home - has changed since 2007. The blood test is not required before and after vaccination is not mandatory for all hobby keepers blood sample. This will happen randomly. Vaccinated animals may be transported to another Member State provided that State do not object. (2)

The Dutch government since 2006 makes a distinction between commercial poultry and backyard poultry in terms of screening / confinement. In a low risk of infection may backyard poultry, except waterfowl, roam freely. Vaccinated hobby poultry is also at high risk exempt from the screening requirement. (3) All types of vaccines against avian influenza H5 and H7 that since 2007 the European Union on the market, meet the quality standards and are safe and effective use (4).
ResearchSince the outbreaks of bird flu found on businesses regulated research (monitoring) site. Also, wild birds are tested for the presence of bird flu. Worldwide there is much scientific research. It is under further revealed that the H5N1 virus can survive long outside of birds. Varies depending on the circumstances the survival of two weeks to two months. The colder and drier air, the longer the virus remains alive.

It is also clear now why it is that ducks are carrying the virus, not ill. U.S. scientists have discovered a gene that causes bird flu infection with duck a problem through. Chickens do not have this gene.

Low Pathogenic and High Pathogenic

With bird flu a distinction between low pathogenic and highly pathogenic virus. The low pathogenic virus is not very ill, the highly pathogenic is very sickening. For the low pathogenic virus is a different approach than for the highly pathogenic virus. In an outbreak of low pathogenic virus is only removed the infected farm, an outbreak of highly pathogenic virus are also businesses in the area cleared. Vaccination of companies is possible, but for economic reasons still not fully accepted. Also, the existing vaccine is not fast enough to operate a poultry outbreak in a highly dense area quickly to control (see appendix Control of Highly pathogenic Influenza Avia)
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Newcastle Diseases

Newcastle disease and New Castle Disease (NCD) is caused by the virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Rubulavirus. Newcastle disease is endemic in many countries.The incubation period for Newcastle disease is four to six days. The symptoms are wheezing, coughing, hanging from the wings, turning the head, paralysis, decreased egg production, distorted egg, greenish, watery diarrhea, swelling around the eyes and the neck. Mortality depends on the type of poultry and the virus type.
Newcastle disease virus may be present in almost all birds, both domesticated and wild birds. Directly susceptible to the virus are chickens, turkeys, quails, pigeons, ostriches, parrots and canaries species. Other birds are less sensitive and exhibit milder symptoms. Less sensitive species can carry and excrete virus without showing symptoms.
The transmission of the virus takes place including the feces of infected animals. The man can play a role in the transmission. There is no treatment. (1)
SpreadDistribution of the New Castle Disease and Newcastle disease within a flock is through inhalation of virus or the absorption of water and / or food contaminated by manure or secretions of loft mates.Spread from an infected flock to a sensitive torque is available over the air, contaminated water droplets and particles through mechanical vectors. Clothing, footwear of visitors, crates, containers and egg trays are the most important.Other distribution vectors include other animals, including flies, litter and contaminated poultry products (meat and eggs).Spread of virus from a reservoir of wild birds may be in direct contact with infected wild birds and poultry business. Infection is possible if infected wild birds in the immediate vicinity of the barn and stop conditions for distribution via the winds are favorable. In this context also (post) pigeons a potential source of infection.
VaccinationFor Newcastle disease and Newcastle disease vaccination is a requirement for commercial farmers, hobby farmers with their animals to shows, and holders of pigeons participating in races. Several vaccines are freely available. This compulsory vaccination must be performed by a veterinarian.In addition, owners themselves voluntarily vaccinate their animals. The vaccination should be carefully conducted. The oogdruppelmethode is the best, then spray-inoculation, and finally the drinking water vaccination. Experienced bird keepers, the vaccination itself can perform well. Follow the instructions of the veterinarian well. Not every vet has the vaccine in stock but can order or at a poultry veterinarian involved. It is very useful vaccination after 14 days to repeat. The animals build a good resistance.
Under the control scenario are sick animals euthanized and non-diseased animals are kept indoors 60 days and checked for disease. After 30 and 60 days, these animals by the FDA sampled for NCD and then vaccinated. Is a location free from disease, it will be released after 60 days.
In pigeons is a variant of Newcastle disease found that in sudden death without obvious abnormalities lead. It is the pigeon paramyxovirus-1. This virus would in due course be transferred to chickens, where it could develop into a malignant variant. In couples who have a good protection against Newcastle disease virus, this little birds can do damage.
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The disease ILT (infectious laryngotracheitis) may occur in hobbykippen, pheasants and peacocks. Infection with this virus disease is characterized by increased mortality, respiratory sounds (gurgling and spluttering), conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, occasionally bloody mucus and the striking 'yawn', where the animals with open beaks and outstretched neck, inhaling and then at the expiration the head lowered. The chicken can thereby have very cramped.

Transfer and dissemination of ILTThe ILT virus is a herpesvirus. The virus can be particularly at low temperatures to survive very long outside of the chicken: one week in manure and dead animals in a few months. ILT virus spreads more slowly than other viruses, such as IBV, NCD and AI. For houses with cages may take several days before the barn is infected.Dissemination takes place through: direct contact and indirect contact (people, birds, vermin, transport, packaging and tools). Spread through the air seems possible, but is normally not a major factor. Wild birds are not seen as a virus reservoir, although pheasants are a risk factor.There is no vertical transmission in infected eggs because the embryo dies off. The incubation period is 5-15 days. After infection and vaccination can prevent latent virus carriers. Reactivation of the (vaccine) virus is possible, such as stress, production, and scaling an existing in a flock.

No treatment, or vaccinationAgainst ILT is no treatment. Emergency vaccination of the affected animals can not do. This vaccine gives complete protection after one day or 5. Vaccination can cause severe symptoms and even lead to new outbreaks. Because of the severe reaction to vaccination is recommended only if there are sick animals or their immediate neighbors complaints. Preventive vaccination is risky.

The practice, signals that a relationship exists between nutrition and ILT. That relationship is traced to a diet of lower quality, which decreases the resistance of the animals and they are susceptible to ILT. In well-fed animals were less severe symptoms than less well-nourished animals. Which would amount to ILT is also a symptom of an overall weakening of chickens.
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Gumboro Disease, also known as Infectious bursitis of Infectious Disease Scholarship (IBD) called, is caused by the Gumboro virus. The disease can be clinical or subclinical course and caused much damage in both cases.
SymptomsA couple has affected general illness with a watery, slimy stools white (by uraatbijmenging). In a torque-sensitive, the whole flock suddenly attacked and lead to death. Although the literature indicates that clinical (visible) infections are not common in animals less than three weeks, we see in practice, often at an earlier stage clinical infections. The earliest infection was determined at the age of 9 days.
CauseThe disease is caused by the Gumborovirus, also known as Infectious Disease Scholarship virus (IBD) called. Natural infection occurs by uptake of the virus through the beak / mouth (oral route). The virus was 5 hours after infection to demonstrate in cells of the small intestine and liver. A strong virus replication occurs in the bursa of Fabricius from 11 hours after infection. The main host for the IBD virus (IBDV) is the chicken, continue his regular natural infections in turkeys and ducks. For pheasants and ostriches, the IBD virus is isolated, quail may also be sensitive. The disease occurs worldwide.
IBD has two serotypes: serotype 1 and serotype is the most important causes disease in chickens, serotype 2 is found in chicken, turkey and duck, but is not pathogenic. Within the serotype 1, the so-called variant IBD viruses' for. These cause many problems in the USA. Within a serotype, a further subdivision into groups as possible. This is done based on differences in amino acid sequence. The groups with modern DNA techniques to map. The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 3 days.
Infection RouteVirus Spread within a flock is through direct and indirect contact. The manure is the main source of dust stain. Infected animals secreted up to two weeks after infection with the virus much manure. Transmission through the air (aero gene transmission) plays no role. There is no evidence of transmission through hatching (vertical transmission). Also, we do not know 'carriers'.The virus is highly resistant, thus IBD problem once infected premises may remain long. After removal of an IBD-infected flocks remains the loft for at least 122 days infectious, water, feed and manure samples from a contaminated pen after 52 days still infectious. IBD virus includes sensitive to chloramine disinfection with 2% (Halamid), formalin and glutaraldehyde.
Between companiesSpread to other firms takes place through people, animals or contaminated materials. Because of the resistant nature of the indirect transfer easily find Gumborovirus place. Wild birds, rodents and polystyrene beetles can transmit the virus to other couples and / or companies. The virus can survive for long in manure. Contaminated manure near businesses is a clear risk factor.
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