Saturday, August 6, 2011

Newcastle Diseases

Newcastle disease and New Castle Disease (NCD) is caused by the virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Rubulavirus. Newcastle disease is endemic in many countries.The incubation period for Newcastle disease is four to six days. The symptoms are wheezing, coughing, hanging from the wings, turning the head, paralysis, decreased egg production, distorted egg, greenish, watery diarrhea, swelling around the eyes and the neck. Mortality depends on the type of poultry and the virus type.
Newcastle disease virus may be present in almost all birds, both domesticated and wild birds. Directly susceptible to the virus are chickens, turkeys, quails, pigeons, ostriches, parrots and canaries species. Other birds are less sensitive and exhibit milder symptoms. Less sensitive species can carry and excrete virus without showing symptoms.
The transmission of the virus takes place including the feces of infected animals. The man can play a role in the transmission. There is no treatment. (1)
SpreadDistribution of the New Castle Disease and Newcastle disease within a flock is through inhalation of virus or the absorption of water and / or food contaminated by manure or secretions of loft mates.Spread from an infected flock to a sensitive torque is available over the air, contaminated water droplets and particles through mechanical vectors. Clothing, footwear of visitors, crates, containers and egg trays are the most important.Other distribution vectors include other animals, including flies, litter and contaminated poultry products (meat and eggs).Spread of virus from a reservoir of wild birds may be in direct contact with infected wild birds and poultry business. Infection is possible if infected wild birds in the immediate vicinity of the barn and stop conditions for distribution via the winds are favorable. In this context also (post) pigeons a potential source of infection.
VaccinationFor Newcastle disease and Newcastle disease vaccination is a requirement for commercial farmers, hobby farmers with their animals to shows, and holders of pigeons participating in races. Several vaccines are freely available. This compulsory vaccination must be performed by a veterinarian.In addition, owners themselves voluntarily vaccinate their animals. The vaccination should be carefully conducted. The oogdruppelmethode is the best, then spray-inoculation, and finally the drinking water vaccination. Experienced bird keepers, the vaccination itself can perform well. Follow the instructions of the veterinarian well. Not every vet has the vaccine in stock but can order or at a poultry veterinarian involved. It is very useful vaccination after 14 days to repeat. The animals build a good resistance.
Under the control scenario are sick animals euthanized and non-diseased animals are kept indoors 60 days and checked for disease. After 30 and 60 days, these animals by the FDA sampled for NCD and then vaccinated. Is a location free from disease, it will be released after 60 days.
In pigeons is a variant of Newcastle disease found that in sudden death without obvious abnormalities lead. It is the pigeon paramyxovirus-1. This virus would in due course be transferred to chickens, where it could develop into a malignant variant. In couples who have a good protection against Newcastle disease virus, this little birds can do damage.


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